NIAAA’s 50th anniversary is truly a highlight in the history of public health. More than 5 decades ago, a group of researchers, advocates, and elected officials made a farsighted decision when they pushed for the creation of a federal institution dedicated to research that improves the lives of millions of Americans and their families devastated by alcohol misuse. In 2020, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) celebrated its 50th anniversary. In honor of this important milestone, the Institute organized a 2-day scientific symposium, entitled “Alcohol Across the Lifespan: 50 Years of Evidence-Based Diagnosis, Prevention, and Treatment Research,” that featured presentations by leading researchers who discussed research advances across many domains of alcohol research. The articles in this Festschrift topic series are based on these presentations.